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Pleuritic chest pain is caused by inflammation of the pleura – the tissues that surround the lungs and line the inner chest wall[1]. This type of chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. It’s exacerbated by sneezing, coughing, deep breathing or laughing[2]. The condition that causes pleuritic chest pain is called pleurisy.

Causes of Pleurisy

When the pleura become irritated and inflamed, the two membranous pleural layers rub against each other like two pieces of sandpaper producing pain when you breathe. Causes of pleurisy include:1

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Bronchiectasis is among a group of lung diseases classified as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , or COPD. The disease is marked by an abnormal widening and thickening of the large airways (bronchi) of the lungs as a result of chronic inflammation and/or infection. When the airways thicken, excess mucus pools in the widened areas, leading to infection and airway obstruction. Normally, cilia – tiny hair-like structures that line airways – gently sweep back and forth to aid in the process of mucus clearance. In bronchiectasis, however, the cilia are destroyed making mucus clearance much more difficult. This leads to repeated cycles of inflammation, infection and airway obstruction typical of bronchiectasis.[1]

Although bronchiectasis is irreversible, with treatment, symptoms can be managed and most people can live relatively normal lives.[2]

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As chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) worsens, the flow of air to and from your lungs gets increasingly limited making it gradually more difficult to breathe. Once you’ve reached Stage II COPD, otherwise known as moderate COPD, your lung function becomes reduced to between 50% and 79% of the predicted normal[1]. What else should you expect during State II COPD?

What to Expect in Stage II COPD

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Tachypnea is the medical term for an increased respiratory (breathing) rate. The normal respiratory rate is 12 to 20 breaths per minute in adults. When the breathing rate is greater than 20 breaths per minute, it is considered tachypnea. Tachypnea is a symptom of an underlying illness and is not a disease, itself.

Causes

Tachypnea can be caused by a wide range of health problems including:

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If you’ve been diagnosed with Stage III COPD (severe), airflow limitation worsens as your lung function continues to decline. Your forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV) is between 30% and 49% of the predicted norma and you’re growing increasingly aware of the impact the disease is having on your life as work and chores around the house become more difficult.

Thankfully,COPD treatment and lifestyle changes can help you manage your symptoms and the daily challenges you’re going to face as you move forward in the disease.

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